Like many of my multi-tasking Programs colleagues, I use a variety of online notebooks, bookmarking and citation management tools to keep track of documents and references related to ongoing projects. It’s a source of continual frustration to me that the reference lists and bibliographies that I develop in one space can’t be easily moved to another for re-use in a new context. There are plenty of tools to help me capture data as I move around the Web, but few that enable me to pool or integrate the sources that I’ve squirreled away in different folders and lists. My Google Notebook of shared print policies can’t be swapped into my Zotero library on collaborative collection management; a collection of tagged resources in NINES can’t be pushed into a personal bibliography in WorldCat; an iTunes library of RLG podcasts can’t be merged with a list of publications. These collections live quite near the surface of the Web, but they don’t exhibit the kinds of elective affinities that one might expect in the “social” network environment.
Of course, lists built with most citation management services can be exported and moved around in a number of standard formats (RIS, BibTeX) — but in a world where research data, services and social practices are moving onto the network, one might wish for a better solution. A solution that would enable students and researchers (and people like me) to create and exchange references and citations for the full range of information objects that we use, support context-aware resolution and delivery services, and allow references to be decoupled from the environment in which they were created and reintegrated into other work products. I want my references to free-associate with “others like this” in ways that will enhance and enrich my discovery experience. I want my references and citations (and yours) to rise to the surface and make themselves known.
Some standard tools and protocols exist to make this kind of network-aware personal collection management possible. The COinS specification for embedding OpenURL linking (citation) data in Web pages has been around for several years and has already been implemented in a variety of library service environments, from local OPACs to WorldCat record displays. (Lorcan has noted various advances in this area, here, here and here.) In combination with an OpenURL Resolver, it enables Web users to link to library-owned or licensed content. For example, COinS enables Wikipedia users to locate library-owned titles from citations in articles, like this bibliography of W.H. Auden:
and it also powers Zotero’s seemingly magical ability to lift citation metadata directly out of certain kinds of superficially unstructured Web content, including blog postings:
As for my dreams of a day when references and bibliographies are freed from the various boxes, drawers, folders and files in which they languish…well, we’re a step closer now that WorldCat lists have implemented a COinS compliant view of bibliographies built within WorldCat.org. Thanks to some energetic OCLC colleagues, all of the citations in the tens of thousands of public WorldCat lists, can now be easily mixed and commingled, set free to move about the Web as resolvable, actionable references. If you’re a Zotero user, you’ll see the change immediately: WorldCat lists now self-identify as content that’s ready for exchange and circulation
— shiny new COinS of the network realm.
Constance Malpas is a Research Scientist at OCLC. Her work focuses on data-driven analysis of library collections and services, with a special emphasis on strategic planning and managing institutional change. She has a particular interest in the organization of knowledge and research practices in the sciences.